Disregarding temporal and spatial climate variability, Africa has abundant rainfall and relatively low levels of withdrawals of water for the three major uses of water - agriculture, community water supply and industry -which are estimated to be about 3.8% of total annual renewable water resources. Africa appears blessed with abundant water resources: large rivers include the Congo, Nile, Zambezi and Niger and Lake Victoria is the world's second-largest. But Africa is the second driest continent in the world, after Australia, and millions of Africans still suffer from water shortages throughout the year.
Water is a precious yet non-renewable resource. Yet in Africa, the same water can be a source of life and death. Water is not only the most basic of need but also at the centre of sustainable development and essential for poverty eradication. Water is intimately linked to health, agriculture, energy and biodiversity.
Water scarcity in Africa is predicted to reach dangerously high levels by 2025. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the world's population may suffer from freshwater shortage by 2025. The main causes of water scarcity in Africa are physical and economic scarcity, rapid population growth, and climate change.
Countries in Africa have water problems
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Mozambique: 52.7% lack basic water services
Niger: 54.2% lack basic water services
Chad: 57.5% lack basic water services
Congo: 58.2% lack basic water services
Angola: 59% lack basic water services
Somalia: 60% lack basic water services
Ethiopia: 60.9% lack basic water services